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Presentation

 
Presentation – European Algae Biomass – (27 – 28 April 2011 – London)
Download Presentation : Spirulina -Food for the Future
 
 
 
Presentation – 3rd Annual ALGAE World Summit 2011  - ( 23-25 May 2011 : San Diego. CA)
 
 
 
Presentation – Bio-Fuel Production From Microalgae
 
 
 
 
 
Presentation – W2W & I-CEPEC (26-29 July 2010 : PWTC Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
 
 
 
 
The Potential Of Premia Spirulina EX
 
 
 
 
Presentation – Future In Bio Diesel from Algae in Asia (10-11 Nov 2010 – The Maya Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)

Pictures

Our Laboratory

Our Laboratory

(03.08.2011, 25 Photos)
Dialogue with Dr. Rita Cowell

Dialogue with Dr. Rita Cowell

(24.07.2011, 35 Photos)
AMIC Site Visit

AMIC Site Visit

(19.07.2011, 19 Photos)
KOSEP Power Plant, South of Korea

KOSEP Power Plant, South of Korea

(05.07.2011, 27 Photos)
Boryeang Power Plant, South of Korea

Boryeang Power Plant, South of Korea

(04.07.2011, 24 Photos)
Cambridge Site Visit

Cambridge Site Visit

(27.06.2011, 18 Photos)
Future Foresight Workshop 2011

Future Foresight Workshop 2011

(12.05.2011, 39 Photos)
MyAgri, Lepar Site

MyAgri, Lepar Site

(12.05.2011, 43 Photos)
MIGHT Visit Algaetech Lab

MIGHT Visit Algaetech Lab

(20.04.2011, 22 Photos)
Site Visitation at Batamindo

Site Visitation at Batamindo

Site Visitation by UKM, Myagri, LPKP and Transturbo at Batamindo (11.04.2011, 28 Photos)
Algae For Biodiesel Project

Algae For Biodiesel Project

(29.03.2011, 25 Photos)
Spirulina Farm at Sentul, Jakarta

Spirulina Farm at Sentul, Jakarta

(27.03.2011, 24 Photos)
Luncheon Talk On Alternative Energy

Luncheon Talk On Alternative Energy

(24.02.2011, 19 Photos)
Bioremediation of POME & Leachate

Bioremediation of POME & Leachate

(18.01.2011, 12 Photos)
Training And R&D

Training And R&D

(14.09.2010, 19 Photos)
3D Model - CO2 Sequestration

3D Model - CO2 Sequestration

(10.08.2010, 10 Photos)
3D Model AIMSys

3D Model AIMSys

(10.08.2010, 14 Photos)
PBR With Light

PBR With Light

(03.08.2010, 4 Photos)
Cambridge Visit Algaetech Laboratory

Cambridge Visit Algaetech Laboratory

(20.07.2010, 26 Photos)
PBR Prototype 3D Model

PBR Prototype 3D Model

(08.06.2010, 4 Photos)
Methane Capturing 3D Model

Methane Capturing 3D Model

(11.05.2010, 9 Photos)
Biotech Corp Visit Algaetech Lab

Biotech Corp Visit Algaetech Lab

(04.05.2010, 12 Photos)
AIMSys

AIMSys

(13.04.2010, 8 Photos)
Waste To Wealth

Waste To Wealth

(09.03.2010, 14 Photos)
CO2 Sequestration

CO2 Sequestration

(28.02.2010, 22 Photos)
Renew 2009

Renew 2009

(12.08.2009, 18 Photos)
MOU Signing Between GEMS & Sirim Berhad

MOU Signing Between GEMS & Sirim Berhad

(14.06.2009, 16 Photos)
Manuscript for AquaFUELs Rountable 좻 the State of the Art of Algae 좻 to 좻 Biofuels
20 좻 21 October 2010, Brussels, Belgium.
Algae Biomass Production;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
Syed Isa Syed Alwi
Algaetech Group of Companies
241-A, Jalan Ampang, 50450, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
E-mail: syedisa@algaetech.com.my
ABSTRACT
One of the companies under Algaetech, Sasaran Biofuel Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia, provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions through the diversion of the CO2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO2 waste stream.
The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Group…s power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae.
With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The Utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO2) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO2 in the stack gases to produce algae.
Keywords: CO2 Sequestration, Waste Management, Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and Algae Integrated Management System, Algae Biomass Production.
Algae Biomass Production;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
1.0 INTRODUCTION
In today…s world, where carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are increasing in our atmosphere, a driven need directs science to battle this challenge before the critical level is reached resulting in irreversible effects. Living in this industrial era, where by the usage of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the main factor in the rising of CO2 into our atmosphere, our environment is at risk of long-term damages and from the greenhouse effect. Therefore an important responsibility falls on post-industrial humans to avoid reaching a catastrophic, irreversible level of such emissions of CO2 (Velea, et. al., 2009).
Sasaran Biofuel Sdn. Bhd, a subsidiary company of Algaetech Sdn. Bhd is focused on reducing CO2 through our consultancy services on CO2 sequestration carbon credit management and integrated renewable energy plants attached with algae cultivation and production. Directing our services towards the industrial region, where CO2 pollution is abundantly present especially in flue gas, the Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) technology obtains CO2 for mass producing algae. This method utilizes CO2 for the photosynthesis of algae and is an ongoing independent cycle. The result of this system not only stops the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere, it provides a means of self support for the stages involved in obtaining biodiesel from the mass produced algae cultured.
1.1 The Biology of CO2 Sequestration
CO2 sequestration has been naturally occurring for billions of years. However due to the recent advancement in industrial development, emission of CO2 has greatly increased. Therefore, in order to reduce it, artificial CO2 sequestration has to be implemented. The current strategies used to capture CO2 involve the use of the ocean, geological, terrestrial and also biological ways.
AIMS use the biological process to sequestrate CO2 through algae cultivation. The concept of this system is applied through an on-going cycle of CO2 captured by algae. The production of algae can be used to manufacture ethanol and biodiesel, that in turn yields CO2 from the combustion of ethanol; conceivably a cycle is generated. Algae are subsequently sequestering carbon; an important process for the world today as it generates viable, highly efficient form of oil from algae. Alga is currently the most viable oil source available and grows more rapidly than alternative plant oil producing organisms. Illustration 1 explains this concept of biodiesel and ethanol production. As a rule of thumb, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is removed (from otherwise airborne emissions) via the growth of two tons of algae.
1.2 Algae for Bio-Diesel
Producing liquid or gaseous fuels from algae was an idea that emerged during the oil crises of the 1970s and led to a significant research and development in the United States (Sheehan, et al, 1988) and in Australia (Regan & Gartside, 1983; Hillen & Warren, 1976). Due to the sudden increase in oil prices, this idea has sparked the opportunity to use biofuel as a method of greenhouse gas reduction (Benemann & Oswald, 1996; Kedem, 2001). Nannochloropsis is small green algae that are extensively used in the aquaculture industry for growing small zooplankton such as rotifers and for Greenwater. Nannochloropsis has an astoundingly high oil content of up to 60% of dry weight. This alga can be incorporated in a photo bioreactor system easily due to its small size, high metabolic rate and high oil/lipid content as compared to alternatives such as plants.
The basic growth requirements for algae are sufficient CO2, water, sunlight and nutrients. This technology also highlights the biodiesel sector, where CO2 is supplied in the initial stages of the process and the algal biomass is collected for perhaps the ultimate source of plant based oil for biodiesel. It is well known that algae can flourish in otherwise hostile growth environments including non-arable land or dirty water. Algae can double mass several times daily
Algae Biomass Production;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Algae Integrated Management Systems (AIMS)
The Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) technology is depends greatly on the photosynthesis process. It is used for the production of microalgae under controlled conditions. Its productivity is orders of magnitude greater than any other Photo-Bioreactor system. The system will integrate two different platforms of technology which are Algae Plant and Precision Agriculture. The importance of this technology to be implemented is to maximize the production and the capabilities of any Algae Plant.
‥AIMS… is attached to sensors to detect environmental conditions. The race-way pond installs paddle wheels for areation. Its small electric motor is easily driven and therefore energetically inexpensive. With the encapsulation of algae to modify the behavior of which algae can separate the essential nutrients and toxic matters.
2.2 CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
Using algae for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere is known as algae-based Carbon Capture technology. Algaetech provide the necessary assistance on the technology establishment and facilitate in the development of R&D plant as a pilot for AIMS on a basis for further expansion and collaboration in the future for growing algae. Photo-bioreactor technology and open ponds system are being used to cultivate microalgae, this provide excellent perspectives for renewable energy production and as a source of ‥green… products. AIMS deploy a series of equipments collectively to ensure efficient and effective sequestration of CO2 gas. ‥AIMS… is divided into four major processes; Preparation, Culturing, Harvesting Dewater and Processing Bio Refining.
Figure 1: PID Diagram for Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) Process flow
The diagram above shows the division of the process. The preparation involves collection of sea water, filtration, and treatment in the respective tanks. Then later the saline solution it is treated with anti-chlorine solution to make it adaptable for algae growth. Nutrients are added in the Nutrient Tank to make media for the algae to grow.
The culturing process involves the Photo-Bioreactor (PBR). The Reservoir Tank is the dark stage whereas the light stage takes place in the PBR tubes, enabling algae to undergo photosynthesis and increasing the biomass. The CO2 is provided from the flue gas combusted by the power plants. The flue gas collected passes through a Heat Exchanger (cooling system). The gas is pressurized by the Blower and collects in the Flue Gas Chamber as compressed CO2.
Algae Biomass Production;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
After sufficient time has elapse in the PBR, the algae moves to the Harvesting Pond. With sufficient growth of algae, the biomass extraction uses a Centrifugation Machine, collecting the biomass at the bottom. The recycled water passes through the UV & Treatment System to be neutralized, free from bacteria and contaminations and enter to the Treatment Tank for the next preparation process.
After the biomass has been collected, it undergoes a drying process to evaporate remaining water. The dry powder or cake form of the algae biomass is then refined to obtain the valuable product. This product is then sent for refining and extraction of biodiesel. Algae can undergo mechanical or chemical methods for oil extraction.
2.3 Overview of AIMS at Power Plant Project at Batam Island, Indonesia.
Currently, Algaetech is developing a 480,000 liters AIMS system in Indonesia. Algaetech provides the project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop AIMS for minimizing and mitigating CO2 emissions through the diversion of the CO2 into enclosed PBR as algal propagation to consume CO2 waste streams. The algal growth can be utilized in the production of various algal products such as Bio-Fuels and other high value natural products (HVP…s).
2.3.1 The business and project objectives of the AIMS from the flue gas are:
꽞 To capture the flue gas CO2 from the gas engines used to generate power.
꽞 Demonstrates the feasibility of mitigating CO2 emissions through diverging CO2 into open algal ponds and PBR from flue gas.
꽞 To produce algae biomass in PBR. The oil-rich strains will further be process into bio-fuel and other value-added products using Algaetech latest technology.
꽞 To quantify the absorption of CO2 emitted due to burning of fossil fuels in the power plants and to qualify the project under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
2.3.2 Characteristics of Algae based CO2 Capture are:
꽞 Captures flue gas that usually contains only 2-5% of CO2 for the PBR.
꽞 Uses other pollutants such as Nitrogen and Sulphur containing compounds as nutrients.
꽞 Uses photosynthesis to yield algal biomass of high value commercial product
꽞 A renewable cycle process
2.3.2 Key advantages of the process of CO2 sequestration using algae:
꽞 Does not require a high pure concentration of CO2 gas.
꽞 Natural gas or syngas powered power plants have virtually no SO2 in the flue gas.
꽞 Biofuels obtainable from algae are the starting point for high-protein animal feeds, agricultural fertilizers, biopolymers / bio-plastics, glycerin and more.
꽞 Algae can grow in temperatures ranging from below freezing to 158oF.
꽞 Minimal negative impacts on the environment
꽞 High value products obtained by algae culturing will offset the capital and operational cost
3.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Certain precautions and guidelines have to be strictly controlled to ensure the operation is not faulty. ‥AIMS… is a closed system that has to be contamination free in order to culture one specific algae strain. The up-scaling of viable algae is done in the laboratory that gradually increases in volume. Sterilization is a factor that must be properly dealt with to avoid a system crash.
In the event that the liquid source is dependent on sea water, the cost of this system would greatly increase. Naturally, the liquid content will reduce over time due to absorption by algae, evaporation in the harvesting pond, sample extraction etc. Therefore, abundant sea water is only necessary during the initiation of the process, otherwise minimal amounts are used to refill the water loss. The downstream process plays an important role in the extraction of the final product. This is the most time consuming sector of the entire system, which involves centrifugation, filtration and sedimentation/flocculation. The
Algae Biomass Production;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
progression of the process needs to allocate time for the downstream process to perform without overloading the system. This system operates on a 24 hours schedule, and requires 12 people to accommodate the man power for this system. The operations of this system are done with three (3) working shifts. Due to the system being machine operated, it requires specialized technicians in case of faulty machines.
4.0 CONCLUSIONS
Despite cost being an initial factor in setting up the AIM system, the outcome is also profitable. The innovation into biodiesel is the next step into the future. Biodiesel has the potential to lower the net greenhouse-gas emissions. Using biodiesel reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic HCs, nitrated polycyclic aromatic HCs, and particulate matter. Biodiesel fuels are readily biodegradable and can therefore benefit in case of spills.
With the AIMS technology, carbon emission can be controlled by collecting the flue gas into the PBR system; achieving control and subsequently reduction to CO2 into the environment. Additionally the application of AIMS is crucial for tomorrow…s world for providing a replacement for petrol.
5.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES
[1] Benemann, J.R. and Oswald, W.J. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass, Final Report to the Department of Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 1996
[2] Cornet J.F., Dussap C.G., Gros J.B. (1998). Kinetics and energetic of photosynthetic micro-
organisms in
Photo-bioreactors: application to Spirulina growth. Advances in biochemical engineering and
Biotechnology, 59, 155-224.
[3] Hillen, L.W. and Warren, D.R. Hydrocarbon fuels from solar energy via the alga Botryococcus Braunii, Mechanical Engineering Report 148. Aeronautical Research Laboratories, DSTO, 1976.
[4] Kedem, K.L., Microalgae production from power plant flue gas: Environmental implications on a life cycle basis, Report TP-510-29417, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 2001.
[5] Regan, D.L. and Gartside, G. Liquid Fuels from Micro-Algae in Australia, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 1983.
[6] Sheehan, J., Dunahay, T., Benemann, J. and Roessler, P. A look back at the U.S Department of Energy…s aquatic species program: biodiesel from algae, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report NREL/TP-580-24190, 1988
[7] Velea, S., Dragos N., Serban S., Ilie L., Astalpeanu D., Coara A, Stepan E. 2009. Biological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide From Thermal Power Plant Emissions, By Absorption In Microalgal Culture Media. National Research and Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry 좻ICECHIM, 202 Vol. 14, No. 4, 2009, pp. 4485-4500
 
 
Advance Emission Control & Precision Agriculture; CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System
Syed Isa Syed Alwi 1, Ruzanna Abdul Rahman 2 and Mohd Norsham Che Yahya 3
1 Chief Executive Officer of Algaetech Group of Companies
2 Technology Officer of Algaetech Group of Companies
3 Business Development Executive of Algaetech Group of Companies
Abstract. One of the companies under Algaetech, Sasaran Biofuel Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia, provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions through the diversion of the CO2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO2 waste stream.
The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Group’s power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae.
With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The Utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO2) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO2 in the stack gases to produce algae.
Keywords: CO2 Sequestration, Waste Management, Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and Algae Integrated Management System.
1. Introduction
In today’s world, where carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are increasing in our atmosphere, a driven need directs science to battle this challenge before the critical level is reached resulting in irreversible effects. Living in this industrial era, where by the usage of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the main factor in the rising of CO2 into our atmosphere, our environment is at risk of long-term damages and from the greenhouse effect. Therefore an important responsibility falls on post-industrial humans to avoid reaching a catastrophic, irreversible level of such emissions of CO2 (Velea, et. al., 2009).
Sasaran Biofuel Sdn. Bhd, a subsidiary company of Algaetech Sdn. Bhd is focused on reducing CO2 through our consultancy services on CO2 sequestration carbon credit management and integrated renewable energy plants attached with algae cultivation and production. Directing our services towards the industrial region, where CO2 pollution is abundantly present especially in flue gas, the Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) technology obtains CO2 for mass producing algae. This method utilizes CO2 for the photosynthesis of algae and is an ongoing independent cycle. The result of this system not only stops the emission of CO2
ISBN 978-1-84626-xxx-x
Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering (ICEAE 2010)
Kyoto, Japan, 1-3 August, 2010, pp. xxx-xxx
into the atmosphere, it provides a means of self support for the stages involved in obtaining biodiesel from the mass produced algae cultured.
1.1 The Biology of CO2 Sequestration
CO2 sequestration has been naturally occurring for billions of years. However due to the recent advancement in industrial development, emission of CO2 has greatly increased. Therefore, in order to reduce it, artificial CO2 sequestration has to be implemented. The current strategies used to capture CO2 involve the use of the ocean, geological, terrestrial and also biological ways.
AIMS use the biological process to sequestrate CO2 through algae cultivation. The concept of this system is applied through an on-going cycle of CO2 captured by algae. The production of algae can be used to manufacture ethanol and biodiesel, that in turn yields CO2 from the combustion of ethanol; conceivably a cycle is generated. Algae are subsequently sequestering carbon; an important process for the world today as it generates viable, highly efficient form of oil from algae. Alga is currently the most viable oil source available and grows more rapidly than alternative plant oil producing organisms. Illustration 1 explains this concept of biodiesel and ethanol production. As a rule of thumb, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is removed (from otherwise airborne emissions) via the growth of two tons of algae.
1.2 Algae for Bio-Diesel
Producing liquid or gaseous fuels from algae was an idea that emerged during the oil crises of the 1970s and led to a significant research and development in the United States (Sheehan, et al, 1988) and in Australia (Regan & Gartside, 1983; Hillen & Warren, 1976). Due to the sudden increase in oil prices, this idea has sparked the opportunity to use biofuel as a method of greenhouse gas reduction (Benemann & Oswald, 1996; Kedem, 2001). Nannochloropsis is small green algae that are extensively used in the aquaculture industry for growing small zooplankton such as rotifers and for Greenwater. Nannochloropsis has an astoundingly high oil content of up to 60% of dry weight. This alga can be incorporated in a photo bioreactor system easily due to its small size, high metabolic rate and high oil/lipid content as compared to alternatives such as plants.
The basic growth requirements for algae are sufficient CO2, water, sunlight and nutrients. This technology also highlights the biodiesel sector, where CO2 is supplied in the initial stages of the process and the algal biomass is collected for perhaps the ultimate source of plant based oil for biodiesel. It is well known that algae can flourish in otherwise hostile growth environments including non-arable land or dirty water. Algae can double mass several times daily
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Algae Integrated Management Systems (AIMS)
The Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) technology is depends greatly on the photosynthesis process. It is used for the production of microalgae under controlled conditions. Its productivity is orders of magnitude greater than any other Photo-Bioreactor system. The system will integrate two different platforms of technology which are Algae Plant and Precision Agriculture. The importance of this technology to be implemented is to maximize the production and the capabilities of any Algae Plant.
‘AIMS’ is attached to sensors to detect environmental conditions. The race-way pond installs paddle wheels for areation. Its small electric motor is easily driven and therefore energetically inexpensive. With the encapsulation of algae to modify the behavior of which algae can separate the essential nutrients and toxic matters.
2.2. CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
Using algae for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere is known as algae-based Carbon Capture technology. Algaetech provide the necessary assistance on the technology establishment and facilitate in the development of R&D plant as a pilot for AIMS on a basis for further expansion and collaboration in the future for growing algae. Photo-bioreactor technology and open ponds system are being used to cultivate microalgae, this
provide excellent perspectives for renewable energy production and as a source of ‘green’ products. AIMS deploy a series of equipments collectively to ensure efficient and effective sequestration of CO2 gas. ‘AIMS’ is divided into four major processes; Preparation, Culturing, Harvesting Dewater and Processing Bio Refining.
Fig. 1: PID Diagram for Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) Process flow
The diagram above shows the division of the process. The preparation involves collection of sea water, filtration, and treatment in the respective tanks. Then later the saline solution it is treated with anti-chlorine solution to make it adaptable for algae growth. Nutrients are added in the Nutrient Tank to make media for the algae to grow.
The culturing process involves the Photo-Bioreactor (PBR). The Reservoir Tank is the dark stage whereas the light stage takes place in the PBR tubes, enabling algae to undergo photosynthesis and increasing the biomass. The CO2 is provided from the flue gas combusted by the power plants. The flue gas collected passes through a Heat Exchanger (cooling system). The gas is pressurized by the Blower and collects in the Flue Gas Chamber as compressed CO2.
After sufficient time has elapse in the PBR, the algae moves to the Harvesting Pond. With sufficient growth of algae, the biomass extraction uses a Centrifugation Machine, collecting the biomass at the bottom. The recycled water passes through the UV & Treatment System to be neutralized, free from bacteria and contaminations and enter to the Treatment Tank for the next preparation process.
After the biomass has been collected, it undergoes a drying process to evaporate remaining water. The dry powder or cake form of the algae biomass is then refined to obtain the valuable product. This product is then sent for refining and extraction of biodiesel. Algae can undergo mechanical or chemical methods for oil extraction.
2.3. Overview of AIMS at Power Plant Project at Batam Island, Indonesia
Currently, Algaetech is developing a 480,000 liters AIMS system in Indonesia. Algaetech provides the project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop AIMS for minimizing and mitigating CO2 emissions through the diversion of the CO2 into enclosed PBR as algal propagation to consume CO2 waste streams. The algal growth can be utilized in the production of various algal products such as Bio-Fuels and other high value natural products (HVP’s).
2.3.1 The business and project objectives of the AIMS from the flue gas are:
 To capture the flue gas CO2 from the gas engines used to generate power.
 Demonstrates the feasibility of mitigating CO2 emissions through diverging CO2 into open algal ponds and PBR from flue gas.
 To produce algae biomass in PBR. The oil-rich strains will further be process into bio-fuel and other value-added products using Algaetech latest technology.
 To quantify the absorption of CO2 emitted due to burning of fossil fuels in the power plants and to qualify the project under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
2.3.2 Characteristics of Algae based CO2 Capture are:
 Captures flue gas that usually contains only 2-5% of CO2 for the PBR.
 Uses other pollutants such as Nitrogen and Sulphur containing compounds as nutrients.
 Uses photosynthesis to yield algal biomass of high value commercial product
 A renewable cycle process
2.3.2 Key advantages of the process of CO2 sequestration using algae:
 Does not require a high pure concentration of CO2 gas.
 Natural gas or syngas powered power plants have virtually no SO2 in the flue gas.
 Biofuels obtainable from algae are the starting point for high-protein animal feeds, agricultural fertilizers, biopolymers / bio-plastics, glycerin and more.
 Algae can grow in temperatures ranging from below freezing to 158oF.
 Minimal negative impacts on the environment
 High value products obtained by algae culturing will offset the capital and operational cost
3. Results and Discussion
Certain precautions and guidelines have to be strictly controlled to ensure the operation is not faulty. ‘AIMS’ is a closed system that has to be contamination free in order to culture one specific algae strain. The up-scaling of viable algae is done in the laboratory that gradually increases in volume. Sterilization is a factor that must be properly dealt with to avoid a system crash.
In the event that the liquid source is dependent on sea water, the cost of this system would greatly increase. Naturally, the liquid content will reduce over time due to absorption by algae, evaporation in the harvesting pond, sample extraction etc. Therefore, abundant sea water is only necessary during the initiation of the process, otherwise minimal amounts are used to refill the water loss. The downstream process plays an important role in the extraction of the final product. This is the most time consuming sector of the entire system, which involves centrifugation, filtration and sedimentation/flocculation. The progression of the process needs to allocate time for the downstream process to perform without overloading the system. This system operates on a 24 hours schedule, and requires 12 people to accommodate the man power for this system. The operations of this system are done with three (3) working shifts. Due to the system being machine operated, it requires specialized technicians in case of faulty machines.
4. Conclusion
Despite cost being an initial factor in setting up the AIM system, the outcome is also profitable. The innovation into biodiesel is the next step into the future. Biodiesel has the potential to lower the net greenhouse-gas emissions. Using biodiesel reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic HCs, nitrated polycyclic aromatic HCs, and particulate matter. Biodiesel fuels are readily biodegradable and can therefore benefit in case of spills.
With the AIMS technology, carbon emission can be controlled by collecting the flue gas into the PBR system; achieving control and subsequently reduction to CO2 into the environment. Additionally the application of AIMS is crucial for tomorrow’s world for providing a replacement for petrol.
5. Acknowledgements and references
[1] Benemann, J.R. and Oswald, W.J. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass, Final Report to the Department of Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 1996
[2]
[3] [2] Cornet J.F., Dussap C.G., Gros J.B. (1998). Kinetics and energetic of photosynthetic micro-organisms in
[4] Photo-bioreactors: application to Spirulina growth. Advances in biochemical engineering and
[5] Biotechnology, 59, 155-224.
[6]
[7] [3] Hillen, L.W. and Warren, D.R. Hydrocarbon fuels from solar energy via the alga Botryococcus Braunii, Mechanical Engineering Report 148. Aeronautical Research Laboratories, DSTO, 1976.
[8]
[9] [4] Kedem, K.L., Microalgae production from power plant flue gas: Environmental implications on a life cycle basis, Report TP-510-29417, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 2001.
[10]
[11] [5] Regan, D.L. and Gartside, G. Liquid Fuels from Micro-Algae in Australia, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 1983.
[12]
[13] [6] Sheehan, J., Dunahay, T., Benemann, J. and Roessler, P. A look back at the U.S Department of Energy’s aquatic species program: biodiesel from algae, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report NREL/TP-580-24190, 1988
[14]
[15] [7] Velea, S., Dragos N., Serban S., Ilie L., Astalpeanu D., Coara A, Stepan E. 2009. Biological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide From Thermal Power Plant Emissions, By Absorption In Microalgal Culture Media. National Research and Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry –ICECHIM, 202 Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 4485-4500
 
Proceedings for 2nd International Conference and Exhibition Waste to Wealth & 6th International Conference on Combustion, Incineration/pylorysis and Emission Control (W2W & I-CEPEC)
26-29 July 2010, Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.
Advance Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and its Management;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
Syed Isa Syed Alwi1
Mohd Norsham Che Yahya2
Ruzanna Abdul Rahman3
Algaetech Group of Companies
241-A, Jalan Ampang, 50450, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
E-mail: syedisa@algaetech.com.my
ABSTRACT
One of the companies under Algaetech, Sasaran Biofuel Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia, provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions through the diversion of the CO2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO2 waste stream.
The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Group’s power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae.
With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The Utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO2) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO2 in the stack gases to produce algae.
Keywords: CO2 Sequestration, Waste Management, Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and Algae Integrated Management System.
Advance Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and its Management;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
1.0 INTRODUCTION
In today’s world, where carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are increasing in our atmosphere, a driven need directs science to battle this challenge before the critical level is reached resulting in irreversible effects. Living in this industrial era, where by the usage of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the main factor in the rising of CO2 into our atmosphere, our environment is at risk of long-term damages and from the greenhouse effect. Therefore an important responsibility falls on post-industrial humans to avoid reaching a catastrophic, irreversible level of such emissions of CO2 (Velea, et. al., 2009).
Here at Sasaran Biofuel Sdn. Bhd, a subsidiary company of Algaetech Sdn. Bhd, it has become our highlighted focus in reducing CO2 through our consultancy services on CO2 sequestration carbon credit management and integrated renewable energy plants attached with algae cultivation and production. Directing our services towards the industrial region, where CO2 pollution is abundantly present especially in flue gas, the Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) technology obtains CO2 for mass producing algae. This method utilizes CO2 for the photosynthesis of algae and is an ongoing independent cycle. The result of this system not only stops the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere, it provides a means of self support for the stages involved in obtaining biodiesel from the mass produced algae cultured.
1.1 The Biology of CO2 Sequestration
CO2 sequestration has been naturally occurring for billions of years. However due to the recent advancement in industrial development, emission of CO2 has greatly increased. Therefore, in order to reduce it, artificial CO2 sequestration has to be implemented. The current strategies used to capture CO2 involve the use of the ocean, geological, terrestrial and also biological ways.
AIMS use the biological process to sequestrate CO2 through algae cultivation. The concept of this system is applied through an on-going cycle of CO2 captured by algae. The production of algae can be used to manufacture ethanol and biodiesel, that in turn yields CO2 from the combustion of ethanol; conceivably a cycle is generated. Algae are subsequently sequestering carbon; an important process for the world today as it generates viable, highly efficient form of oil from algae. Alga is currently the most viable oil source available and grows more rapidly than alternative plant oil producing organisms. Illustration 1 explains this concept of biodiesel and ethanol production. As a rule of thumb, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is removed (from otherwise airborne emissions) via the growth of two tons of algae.
1.2 Algae for Bio-Diesel
Producing liquid or gaseous fuels from algae was an idea that emerged during the oil crises of the 1970s and led to a significant research and development in the United States (Sheehan, et al, 1988) and in Australia (Regan & Gartside, 1983; Hillen & Warren, 1976). Due to the sudden increase in oil prices, this idea has sparked the opportunity to use biofuel as a method of greenhouse gas reduction (Benemann & Oswald, 1996; Kedem, 2001). Nannochloropsis is small green algae that are extensively used in the aquaculture industry for growing small zooplankton such as rotifers and for Greenwater. Nannochloropsis has an astoundingly high oil content of up to 60% of dry weight. This alga can be incorporated in a photo bioreactor system easily due to its small size, high metabolic rate and high oil/lipid content as compared to alternatives such as plants.
The basic growth requirements for algae are sufficient CO2, water, sunlight and nutrients. This technology also highlights the biodiesel sector, where CO2 is supplied in the initial stages of the process and the algal biomass is collected for perhaps the ultimate source of plant based oil for biodiesel. It is well known that algae can flourish in otherwise hostile growth environments including non-arable land or dirty water. Algae can double mass several times daily
2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Algae Integrated Management Systems (AIMS)
The Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) technology is depends greatly on the photosynthesis process. It is used for the production of microalgae under controlled conditions. Its productivity is orders of magnitude greater than any other Photo-Bioreactor system. The system will integrate two different platforms of technology which are Algae Plant and Precision Agriculture. The importance of this technology to be implemented is to maximize the production and the capabilities of any Algae Plant.
Advance Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and its Management;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
‘AIMS’ uses sensors with six (6) apparatus with the capabilities to detect pH, Temperature, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Potassium and moisture. For the raceway ponds, it uses a paddle wheel to keep the system mixed and aerated. Its small electric motor is easily driven and therefore energetically inexpensive. In addition, integrating the process of encapsulation of algae as it will modify the behavior which algae can separate the essential nutrients and toxic substances.
2.2 CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
Using algae for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere is known as algae-based Carbon Capture technology. The AIMS technology provided by Algaetech also grows algae. Algaetech provide the necessary assistance on the technology establishment and facilitate in the development of R&D plant as a pilot for AIMS on a basis for further expansion and collaboration in the future for growing algae. Photo-bioreactor technology and open ponds system are being used to cultivate microalgae, this provide excellent perspectives for renewable energy production and as a source of ‘green’ products. AIMS deploy a series of equipments collectively to ensure efficient and effective sequestration of CO2 gas. ‘AIMS’ is divided into four major processes; Preparation, Culturing, Harvesting Dewater and Processing Bio Refining.
Figure 1: PID Diagram for Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS) Process flow
2.2.1 Preparation
This stage involves the collection of sea water into the Sea Water tank, which is filtered in the Water Filter tank. The filtration process is developed through four stages of filtration; treating with chorine; 10micron filter; 5micron and lastly; filtration with 0.1 micron. The now saline water collects in the Saline Tank before moving to the Treatment Tank. Here the saline and recycled water (water that comes from the end of the process during centrifugation) is sterilized with chlorine. Then later it is treated with anti-chlorine solution to make it adaptable for algae growth. Nutrients are added in the Nutrient Tank to make media for the algae to grow.
2.2.2 Culturing
Also known as the Photo-Bioreactor (PBR) stage and comprises of two categories. Media is injected into the Reservoir Tank with the algae; termed as the dark stage for the buffer circulation of algae culture. The light stage takes place in the PBR, enabling algae to undergo photosynthesis and cell division, thus increasing the biomass. The culture is transferred from the Reservoir Tank to the Photo-Bioreactor and back through modules attached to the PBR tubes. The CO2 is provided from trapping the flue gas combusted by the generators of power plants. The flue gas collected is at 200°C and is cool to 30°C; this is achieved by the Heat Exchanger (cooling system) which will pass the gas through pipes containing special liquid. The gas will then be pressurized by the Blower which will be collected and stored in the Flue Gas Chamber as compressed CO2. The use of the Controller (solenoid valve) controls the total amount of CO2 gas entering the PBR based on the pH conditions of the PBR systems.
Advance Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and its Management;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
2.2.3 Harvesting Dewater
After sufficient time has elapse in the PBR, algae is collected in the Harvesting Pond where the third process, harvesting dewater starts. With sufficient growth of algae, the biomass extraction uses a Centrifugation Machine, collecting the biomass at the bottom. The water that is filtered through, known as the recycle water undergo the UV & Treatment System to be neutralized, free from bacteria and contaminations and enter to the Treatment Tank into for the next preparation process.
2.2.4 Processing of Bio-Refining
After the biomass has been collected, it undergoes a drying process to evaporate remaining water. The dry powder or cake form of the algae biomass is then refined to obtain the valuable product. This product is then sent for refining and extraction of biodiesel. Algae can undergo mechanical or chemical methods for oil extraction.
2.3 Overview of AIMS at Power Plant Project at Batam Island, Indonesia.
Currently, Algaetech is developing a 480,000 liters AIMS system in Batam Island, Indonesia. Algaetech provides the project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop AIMS for minimizing and mitigating CO2 emissions through the diversion of the CO2 into enclosed PBR as algal propagation to consume CO2 waste streams. The algal growth can be utilized in the production of various algal products such as Bio-Fuels and other high value natural products (HVP’s).
2.3.1 The business and project objectives of the AIMS from the flue gas are:
 To capture the flue gas CO2 from the gas engines used to generate power.
 Demonstrates the feasibility of mitigating CO2 emissions through diverging CO2 into open algal ponds and PBR from flue gas.
 To produce algae biomass in PBR. The oil-rich strains will further be process into bio-fuel and other value-added products using Algaetech latest technology.
 To quantify the absorption of CO2 emitted due to burning of fossil fuels in the power plants and to qualify the project under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
2.3.2 Characteristics of Algae based CO2 Capture are:
 Captures flue gas that usually contains only 2-5% of CO2 for the PBR.
 Uses other pollutants such as Nitrogen and Sulphur containing compounds as nutrients.
 Uses photosynthesis to yield algal biomass of high value commercial product
 A renewable cycle process
2.3.2 Key advantages of the process of CO2 sequestration using algae:
 Does not require a high pure concentration of CO2 gas.
 Natural gas or syngas powered power plants have virtually no SO2 in the flue gas.
 Biofuels obtainable from algae are the starting point for high-protein animal feeds, agricultural fertilizers, biopolymers / bioplastics, glycerin and more.
 Algae can grow in temperatures ranging from below freezing to 158oF.
 Minimal negative impacts on the environment
 High value products obtained by algae culturing will offset the capital and operational cost
3.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Certain precautions and guidelines have to be strictly controlled to ensure the operation is not faulty. ‘AIMS’ is a closed system that has to be contamination free in order to culture one specific algae strain. The up-scaling of viable algae is done in the laboratory that gradually increases in volume. Sterilization is a factor that must be properly dealt with to avoid a system crash.
In the event that the liquid source is dependent on sea water, the cost of this system would greatly increase. Naturally, the liquid content will reduce over time due to absorption by algae, evaporation in the harvesting pond,
Advance Emission Control System, Green House Gas Control and its Management;
CO2 Sequestration Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS)
sample extraction etc. Therefore, abundant sea water is only necessary during the initiation of the process, otherwise minimal amounts are used to refill the water loss. The downstream process plays an important role in the extraction of the final product. This is the most time consuming sector of the entire system, which involves centrifugation, filtration and sedimentation/flocculation. The progression of the process needs to allocate time for the downstream process to perform without overloading the system. This system operates on a 24 hours schedule, and requires 12 people to accommodate the man power for this system. The operations of this system are done with three (3) working shifts. Due to the system being machine operated, it requires specialized technicians in case of faulty machines.
4.0 CONCLUSIONS
Despite cost being an initial factor in setting up the AIM system, the outcome is also profitable. The innovation into biodiesel is the next step into the future. Biodiesel has the potential to lower the net greenhouse-gas emissions. Using biodiesel reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic HCs, nitrated polycyclic aromatic HCs, and particulate matter. Biodiesel fuels are readily biodegradable and can therefore benefit in case of spills.
With the AIMS technology, carbon emission can be controlled by collecting the flue gas into the PBR system; achieving control and subsequently reduction to CO2 into the environment. Additionally the application of AIMS is crucial for tomorrow’s world for providing a replacement for petrol.
5.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES
Benemann, J.R. and Oswald, W.J. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass, Final Report to the Department of Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 1996
Cornet J.F., Dussap C.G., Gros J.B. (1998). Kinetics and energetic of photosynthetic micro-organisms in
Photo-bioreactors: application to Spirulina growth. Advances in biochemical engineering and
Biotechnology, 59, 155-224.
Hillen, L.W. and Warren, D.R. Hydrocarbon fuels from solar energy via the alga Botryococcus Braunii, Mechanical Engineering Report 148, Aeronautical Research Laboratories, DSTO, 1976.
Kedem, K.L., Microalgae production from power plant flue gas: Environmental implications on a life cycle basis, Report TP-510-29417, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 2001.
Regan, D.L. and Gartside, G. Liquid Fuels from Micro-Algae in Australia, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 1983.
Sheehan, J., Dunahay, T., Benemann, J. and Roessler, P. A look back at the U.S Department of Energy’s aquatic species program: biodiesel from algae, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report NREL/TP-580-24190, 1988
Velea, S., Dragos N., Serban S., Ilie L., Astalpeanu D., Coara A, Stepan E. 2009. Biological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide From Thermal Power Plant Emissions, By Absorption In Microalgal Culture Media. National Research and Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry –ICECHIM, 202 Vol. 14, No. 4, 2009, pp. 4485-4500
 
 
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