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write date : 2011-09-08 22:13:12   

 

AIMSys

AIMSys

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Algae Integrated Management System is trademark and registered under Algaetech. It is fully integrated and automated algae cultivation management system for commercial algae cultivation for green technology solution and high value products.
AIMSYS operates in a fully controlled environment to ensure the maximum efficiency of the technologies and the highest product quality.
The Algae Integrated Management System (AIMSys) technology is depends greatly on the photosynthesis process. It is used for the production of microalgae under controlled conditions. Its productivity is orders of magnitude greater than any other Photo-Bioreactor system. The system will integrate two different platforms of technology which are Algae Plant and Precision Agriculture. The importance of this technology to be implemented is to maximize the production and the capabilities of any Algae Plant.
AIMsys uses sensors with six (6) apparatus with the capabilities to detect pH, Temperature, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Potassium and moisture. For the raceway ponds, it uses a paddle wheel to keep the system mixed and aerated. Its small electric motor is easily driven and therefore energetically inexpensive. In addition, integrating the process of encapsulation of algae as it will modify the behavior which algae can separate the essential nutrients and toxic substances.
AIMSys services come with project management, technology transfer and technical expertise for Carbon Sequestration and Waste Management that is integrated with algal cultivation.
It is a system that integrates three different platform technologies for a strong well rounded foundation;
1)     Algae Cultivation
2)     Bioremediation
3)     Precision Agriculture
This system enables the management and supervision of the three platform technologies using suitable technology. AIMsys created a management system for the efficiency of Algae Integrated Process, integrate the platforms for a complete process. Automation of the system use Less workmanship and skills required to operate.
AIMsys Remote Server Management allows the control of the system from an outside location in a Long-term cost effective and suitable and proven Management System. It can be the foundation for algae integrated technology for the innovative approach that leads to more possibilities in the future.
The elements in the Management System of AIMSys are:
  • Database and information support
  • Technology know-how
  • Computerization
  • Intelligent Automation Controller through PLC system
  • Organized and convenience of obtaining data report
  • Trouble Shooting
  • Qualify the project under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
 

Algae For Biodiesel

Algae For Biodiesel Project

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BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
 Algae Integrated Technologies offers inherently reliable solution for the depletion of non-renewable energy sources. Biofuel from algal biomass is the alternatives for non-renewable energy which will completely exhausted of all  it’s natural energy reserves within a few years.
  • Algaetech  has certain type of strains which are specifically for producing Biofuels such as, Nannochloropsis oculata  and Chlorella vulgaris
Benefits
  • Environmental friendly
  • Solution to reduce greenhouse gases
  • An alternative fuel source that is renewable, economical, and environmentally friendly as fossil fuels are fast depleting
Algaetech is now in process of patenting 4 IP’s with the Malaysia IP Registrar for the findings. The project is now ready for the commercialization process.
Introduction
Biodiesel is a biofuel produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel has been proved to be a viable renewable alternative fuel of petro diesel that can be used effectively to power the current diesel vehicles either when used singly (B100) or blended (e.g. B20) with regular fuel or petroleum diesel (B20 is a blend composed of 20% biodiesel and 80% petro diesel). Biodiesel provides the benefits of being a renewable resource as well as an effectively a zero-sulfur emission fuel. Biodiesel blends have powered thousands of vehicles in the US. It is now being available at retail service stations in several countries across Europe including Austria, France, Germany, and Switzerland.
Biodiesel is technically referred to as the mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from plant oils or animal fats. These alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters proved to be suitable fuel for compression ignition engines. Biodiesel is mostly produced from vegetable oils. The major components of vegetable oils are triglycerides commonly known as triacylglycerols (TAGs) which are esters of glycerol with long-chain acids, commonly called fatty acids. TAGs are transesterified when they are mixed with an alcohol (mostly methanol) in the presence of a chemical catalyst such as sodium hydroxide. Biodiesel is produced through a transesterification reaction of triglyceride molecules present in fats and oils with alcohol, such as methanol. The transesterification reaction is illustrated in the scheme shown in Figure 8. The reaction is based on the fact that one molecule of triolein reacts with 3 molecules of methanol to produce 3 molecules of methyl esters of fatty acids, the biodiesel product, and one molecule of glycerol.
 Micro-algae are the fastest growing photosynthesizing unicellular organisms and can complete an entire growing cycle every few days. Some algae species have high Oil content (up to 60% oil by weight) and can produce up to 15,000 gallons of oil per Acre per year under optimum conditions. One of the key reasons why algae are considered as feedstock for oil is their yields. Put simply, algae are the only bio-feedstock that can theoretically replace all of our petro-fuel consumption of today and future. Owing to the fact that oil yields are much lower for other feedstocks when compared to those from algae, it will be very difficult for the first generation Biodiesel feedstock such as soy or palm to produce enough oil to replace even a small fraction of petro-oil needs without displacing large percentages of arable land towards crops for fuel production.
Algal oil is highly viscous, with viscosities ranging 10–20 times those of no. 2 Diesel fuel. The high viscosity is due to the large molecular mass and chemical structure of oils which in turn leads to problems in pumping, combustion and atomization in the injector systems of a diesel engine. Therefore, a reduction in viscosity is important to make high-viscous oil a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. There are a number of ways to reduce vegetable oil’s viscosity. These methods include; transestrification, pyrolysis (Pyrolysis Definition from AFR), micro Emulsion (Emulsions & Emulsification – from Wikipedia), blending and thermal depolymerisation. One of the most common methods used to reduce oil viscosity in the Biodiesel industry is called transesterification. It involves chemical conversion of the oil into its corresponding fatty ester.
Project Aim’s & Objective
The use of Nannochloropsis oil, as feedstock for a bench-scale production of biodiesel through alkali-catalyzed methanol transesterification processes. Both physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel will be matched with both European (DIN EN 14214) and US (ASTM 6751-02) standards of biodiesel.
The Biodiesel Story
It became evident that the world petroleum reserves will be exhausted in the next 30 to 40 years. Therefore, a viable, renewable, and sustainable energy source that could substitute fossil petroleum must be explored. Algae are a form of biomass which could substantially increase our world’s ability to produce domestic biofuels. It is well-known from long time ago that algae produce about 70% of the global oxygen and consume the waste gas of carbon dioxide, through the photosynthesis, to build up a variety of very useful and highly energetic molecules.
In recent years, the bio-regenerative methods using photosynthesis by micro algal cells have been made to reduce the atmospheric CO2 to ensure a safe and reliable living environment. As the result of mild conditions for CO2 fixation, there is no requirement for further disposal of recovered CO2 (Lee and Lee, 2003; Cheng et al., 2006; Jin et al., 2006). Marine microalgae are expected as a proper candidate due to their high capability for photosynthesis and easily cultured in sea water which solubilises high amount of CO2 (Takagi et al., 2000). The CO2 fixation by micro algal photosynthesis and biomass conversion into liquid fuel is considered a simple and appropriate process for CO2 circulation on Earth (Takagi et al., 2000).
One of the important applications of algae is oil production which many of them can accumulate lipids due to excess photosynthesis and some species can accumulate amount of lipids under heterotrophy or environment stress, such as nutrient deficiency (Takagi et al., 2000) or salt stress (Takagi et al., 2006).
Lipids from microalgae are chemically similar to common vegetable oils and have been suggested being a high potential source of biodiesel (Dunahay et al., 1996; Chisti, 2007). Microalgae oil most accumulated as triglycerides can be transformed to biodiesel (Lee et al., 1998; Zhang et al., 2003). The biodiesel compared with fossil-driven diesel, that is renewable, biodegradable and low pollutant produced (Vicente et al., 2004). The advantages of biodiesel from microalgae are that microalgae are easy to culture and less area occupation for cultivation (Chisti, 2007). In addition, micro algal- based biodiesel is a potential renewable resource for displacement liquid transport fuels derived from petroleum (Chisti, 2008).
Two critical parameters for bio-fuel are the cost and production. The fuel demand is rising and the land is not enough for plant originated fuel production. Cultivation of certain oily crops needs vast arable areas to get oil need wide lands which it is very difficult to change all the land for plant originated oil.Microalgae may be valuable as source of feedstock oil and they being considered as single-cell photoautotrophic organisms that have the ability to grow at very high rates with only basic nutrient requirements. Certain species of microalgae store a large portion of their energy reserves in lipids, thus making them a potential oil source. This category of algae was the focus of the National Renewable Energy Lab’s (NREL) Aquatic Species Program, with much of the work being devoted to species screening and open pond cultivation (Ferrentino et al 2006).
 

CO2 Sequestration

CO2 Sequestration

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The conventional CO2 sequestration processes are highly power intensive and may cost up to several billions dollar.
Our AIMSys offers effective solution for carbon capturing lower cost by integrating algae biomass production and renewable energy.
Introduction
Using algae for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere is known as algae-based Carbon Capture technology. The AIMSys technology provided by Algaetech also grows algae. Algaetech provide the necessary assistance on the technology establishment and facilitate in the development of R&D plant as a pilot for AIMSys on a basis for further expansion and collaboration in the future for growing algae.
Photo-bioreactor technology and open ponds system are being used to cultivate microalgae, this provide excellent perspectives for renewable energy production and as a source of ‘green’ products. AIMSys deploy a series of equipments collectively to ensure efficient and effective sequestration of CO2 gas. AIMSys is divided into four major processes; Preparation, Culturing, Harvesting Dewater and Processing Bio Refining.
Preparation
This stage involves the collection of sea water into the Sea Water tank, which is filtered in the Water Filter tank. The filtration process is developed through four stages of filtration; treating with chorine; 10micron filter; 5micron and lastly; filtration with 0.1 micron. The now saline water collects in the Saline Tank before moving to the Treatment Tank. Here the saline and recycled water (water that comes from the end of the process during centrifugation) is sterilized with chlorine. Then later it is treated with anti-chlorine solution to make it adaptable for algae growth. Nutrients are added in the Nutrient Tank to make media for the algae to grow.
 
Culturing
 Also known as the Photo-Bioreactor (PBR) stage and comprises of two categories. Media is injected into the Reservoir Tank with the algae; termed as the dark stage for the buffer circulation of algae culture. The light stage takes place in the PBR, enabling algae to undergo photosynthesis and cell division, thus increasing the biomass. The culture is transferred from the Reservoir Tank to the Photo-Bioreactor and back through modules attached to the PBR tubes. The CO2 is provided from trapping the flue gas combusted by the generators of power plants. The flue gas collected is at 200°C and is cool to 30°C; this is achieved by the Heat Exchanger (cooling system) which will pass the gas through pipes containing special liquid. The gas will then be pressurized by the Blower which will be collected and stored in the Flue Gas Chamber as compressed CO2. The use of the Controller (solenoid valve) controls the total amount of CO2 gas entering the PBR based on the pH conditions of the PBR systems.

PBR Prototype 3D Model

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Harvesting Dewater
After sufficient time has elapse in the PBR, algae is collected in the Harvesting Pond where the third process, harvesting dewater starts. With sufficient growth of algae, the biomass extraction uses a Centrifugation Machine, collecting the biomass at the bottom. The water that is filtered through, known as the recycle water undergo the UV & Treatment System to be neutralized, free from bacteria and contaminations and enter to the Treatment Tank into for the next preparation process.
 
Processing of Bio-Refining
 After the biomass has been collected, it undergoes a drying process to evaporate remaining water. The dry powder or cake form of the algae biomass is then refined to obtain the valuable product. This product is then sent for refining and extraction of biodiesel. Algae can undergo mechanical or chemical methods for oil extraction.
AIMSys for the Co2 Sequestration:
  • To capture the flue gas CO2 from the gas engines used to generate power.
  • Demonstrates the feasibility of mitigating CO2 emissions through diverging CO2 into open algal ponds and PBR from flue gas.
  • To produce algae biomass in PBR. The oil-rich strains will further be process into bio-fuel and other value-added products using Algaetech latest technology.
  • To quantify the absorption of CO2 emitted due to burning of fossil fuels in the power plants and to qualify the project under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
Characteristics of Algae based CO2 Capture are:
  • Captures flue gas that usually contains only 2-5% of CO2 for the PBR.
  • Uses other pollutants such as Nitrogen and Sulphur containing compounds as nutrients.
  • Uses photosynthesis to yield algal biomass of high value commercial product
  • A renewable cycle process
Key advantages of the process of CO2 sequestration using algae:
  • Does not require a high pure concentration of CO2 gas.
  • Natural gas or syngas powered power plants have virtually no SO2 in the flue gas.
  • Biofuels obtainable from algae are the starting point for high-protein animal feeds, agricultural fertilizers, biopolymers / bioplastics, glycerin and more.
  • Algae can grow in temperatures ranging from below freezing to 158oF.
  • Minimal negative impacts on the environment
  • High value products obtained by algae culturing will offset the capital and operational cost
CO2 Sequestration Project Illustration

3D Model - CO2 Sequestration

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Methane Capturing

Methane Capturing 3D Model

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Methane Capturing : Aerobics & Anaerobic Digestion
The project will focus to develop an anaerobic digestion ponds integrate with methane capturing system to produce biomass and convert it into energy. Algaetech will provide the project planning and management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a pilot demonstration solution to manage the waste from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP).
It will focus the treatment and polishing of effluent at waste water facility, the production of a biomass (e.g. algae), and the potential to convert this biomass into renewable biogas with the microalgae biomass as a co-feedstock. Open ponds system (Race way ponds) are being used to cultivate microalgae (multicultural/monoculture) and these provide excellent perspectives for renewable energy production and as a source of ‘green’ products.
Lower quality water such as waste water from STP can be used for growing algae. Algae effectively remove nitrogen and phosphate from these streams, which leads to a reduction of water treatment costs. After separation of algae the purified water can be reused for industrial / agriculture purposes and the algae can be harvested.
Algae Based Water Management System incorporates all the efficiencies available in the linkage of anaerobic and aerobic microbial systems in the waste water treatment process. Following screening and grit settling in a conventional head of works, the effluent passes to an up flow anaerobic sludge bed digester located within the Primary Facultative Pond. While the hydraulic residence time in the digester is around three days, the sludge ages run to hundreds of days. Thus, digestion is near complete and no routine sludge handling is required. Furthermore, feedstock for the system can include any biological waste, farm animal waste, biomass, and sludge derived from Activated Sludge-based waste-water treatment works. As such, the Algae Based Water Management System alternative provides an ideal management process for the handling of domestic (and other) waste water streams.
Algal photosynthesis provides a solar-powered operation for achieving oxygen-saturated conditions in the partly-treated waters, and algal efficiency is maximised in the Algal Ponds. The ponds uses a paddle wheel to keep the system mixed and its small electric motor is easily driven by a solar panel. Both secondary and tertiary treatment occurs in this unit and, following algal fluctuated removal in an elementary incline settler, a high quality disinfected final effluent is recovered. In addition to a high quality effluent suitable for agriculture and/or discharge into the environment, the system has the potential to produce substantial quantities of methane (i.e. biogas).

Pome & Leachate

Bioremediation of POME & Leachate

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Algaetech’s Algae Based Water Management System

With the technology that available to us, we have involved in Waste Water Treatment for POME and Leachate where Algaetech’s Algae Based Water Treatment System is being used to grow algae using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and composting Leachate. By doing so, Algaetech provide necessary assistance on the technology establishment and facilitate in the development of a small scale R&D plant as pilot for Algae Based Water Treatment System as a basis for further expansion and collaboration in the future for growing of algae using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and composting Leachate.
The objective of this project is to treat the POME and Leachate that contain high BOD, COD and suspended solids so; clean water will be discharged into water bodies. Open ponds system and Photo-bioreactor technology is being used to cultivate microalgae and this provides excellent perspectives for renewable energy production and as a source of ‘green’ products. Lower quality water such as from POME and Leachate can be used for growing algae. Algae effectively remove nitrogen and phosphate from these streams, which leads to a reduction of water treatment costs. After separation of algae, the purified water can be reused for industrial purposes and the algae can be harvested. Algaetech will focus exclusively on establishing an Algae Based Water Treatment System facility at Palm Oil Mill site. The objectives are:
  • Construct and install the water polishing for effluent treatment and beneficiation;
  • Culture value added algae strain to optimize production of biomass as feedstock for renewable energy and determining the capacity and sustainability of output;
  • Carry out carbon mass balance analysis and determine the potential carbon credits accruing by implementing an Algae Based Water Treatment System;
  • Polish effluent for discharge and utilization of methane as a renewable energy source;
  • Treat the waste water that is being discharged from the Palm Oil Mill factory;
  • Reduce and dispose the ammonia and toxic inside the waste;
  • Create an overall saving for POME & Lechate management cost of at least 10 – 20% after a few months of operation;
  • Make best endeavor to ensure successful application of the Algae Based Water Treatment System and its technology for the project;
  • Cultivation of suitable micro algae using POME and composting Leachate.
 

Training And R&D

Training And R&D

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Algaetech laboratory situated in Technology Park Malaysia is a leading technopreneur incubation and development which creating comprehensive”eco-system” for accelerated and sustainable growth by facilitating R&D, innovation and commercialisation.
The centre for research and development established by the Algaetech in 2007, in response to a high degree of research and development activity at the interface of algae cultivation and the production for commercialisation.
A MYR 15M initial investment in preliminary stage, planning and infrastructures by Algaetech has seen the facility move into state-of-the-art research lab and training centre in recent years.
Algaetech offer comprehensive training and workshop for local and international participant either from individuals or companies. The syllabus endorsed by UKM which consists lectures and more than 12 hours hands-on training with industrial exposure.

Waste Management

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The rapid growth of the industrial sector in Malaysia and ASEAN countries has resulted in a need for pollution control to prevent destruction of our environment and aquatic life. Algaetech Sdn. Bhd. has committed on developing skills, technology and expertise in Algae Integrated Management System (AIMSys) to balance the industrialization and environment destruction.
Waste is the unwanted or unusable materials which are dispose of in a system of waste management. It pose a substantial (present or potential) hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Algaetech Sdn. Bhd. provides a system which used waste water and mill effluent to grow algae in a system, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMSys).
Benefits
  • It cleans the waste which contain toxic substances and can safely be discharged to the environment.
  • It operates as water treatment and energy producing systems for domestic agricultural and industrial waste.
  • It also can produce a substantial biomass to be valorized into a number of products, low and high value and sustainable.
 
 
 
 
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